I Intervention name

Training Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM)

II Region & Country

III Scope and Type of the Intervention

A – What services are provided by this Intervention?

1. Skills Training Services

1.1. Services provided in a non-formal context

1.2. Services provided in a formal context

1.3. Other services and incentives for skills training

2. Entrepreneurship Promotion

3. Employment Services and other Cross-cutting Services

4. Services in the context of subsidized employment

5. Reforms of Labour Market Regulations and (anti-discrimination) Legislation

B – Based on the services you identified above, what would you say are the main categories of the Intervention?

Main categories of the Intervention

Secondary categories of the Intervention

IV Description of the Intervention

A – Nature/Objective of the Intervention

TRYSEM was initiated to provide basic technical and managerial skills to rural youth from families below the poverty line to enable them to take up self-employment and wage employment in the broad fields of agricultural and allied sectors, namely industries, services and business services.

B – Labor market barriers/failures to be addressed by the Intervention

C – Description of the Intervention

TRYSEM is perhaps the largest scheme launched by the Government of India to address the problem of training the rural youth for employment. Training was imparted through formal institutions, including industrial and servicing units, commercial and business establishments and through master craftsmen. The duration of a course did not exceed six months. The trainees were eligible for loans from the banks under the integrated rural development program, being implemented in all the districts of the country. The states bear 50 percent of the expenditure on the scheme, with the central government covering the rest. (In the union territories, the central government covers the entire expenditure). The government covers the recurring costs towards the stipend paid to the trainees, the honoraria for the trainers, etc.; and also assists the training institutions to develop the requisite infrastructure in the form of building, equipment, and training aids. The trainees are supplied free tool-kits during their training. The tool-kits are supplied to help the trainees to gain the practical experience in the use of their tools. TRYSEM is merged with a new self-employment program called Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1-4-99.

Note about target group: Rural youth aged 18-35 are eligible; age is relaxed to 16 for inmates of orphanages in rural areas and up to 45 in the case of widows, freed bonded labourers, freed convicts, persons displaced from large development projects, and cured leprosy patients. The programme is expected to cover a minimum of 50 percent of the youth from the scheduled caste and tribe communities and a minimum of 3 percent from the ranks of the physically handicapped.

V Status of the Intervention


VI Timing

Year when the Intervention started


Year when the Intervention finished


B – Average duration of the Intervention per cohort / round / batch

Unknown or non-applicable

VII Beneficiaries

A – Age group targeted by the Intervention

Only young people

B – Age bracket of beneficiaries

From: 18 to: 35

C – Total number of beneficiaries of the Intervention

about 3,900,000 in 1980-96

D – Average number of beneficiaries per round or batch

Unknown or not applicable

E – Primary location of the Intervention


F – Gender considerations

Gender is not a criterion for participation in the Intervention

G – Disability considerations

Disability is not a criterion for participation in the Intervention

H – Ethnic considerations

Ethnicity is not a criterion for participation in the Intervention

I – Targeting of the Intervention towards low income individuals

The Intervention targets primarily low income individuals

J – Targeting of the Intervention towards individuals with low education or out of school

Education level level is not a criterion for participation in the Intervention

K – Targeting of the Intervention towards individuals at risk

Being at risk is not a criterion for participation in the Intervention

VIII Implementation

A – Implementing agency, name/s

Ministry of Rural Development

A 1. Implementing agency Type/s:

B – Main source/s of financing of the Intervention

IX Evaluation information

A – Type of evaluation available on the Intervention

Process evaluation

B – Period covered by this evaluation

Initial year:
Last year:

C – Results of the evaluation in terms of process

The period, 1980 - 1996, was assessed for the outcome results. During this period, relative to the needs for training of rural youth, the role of the scheme has been rather modest. Over the 16 year period (1980 - 1996), nearly 3.9 million rural youth were trained. Only about 53% of the trained rural youth were employed; and almost a quarter of them had found work as wage employees rather than as self-employed. During the Eighth Plan Period 1992-97, nearly 1.5 million youth had been trained under TRYSEM. About 49% had been employed, nearly 69% as self-employed and the rest as wage-employees. According to the results of the "Quick Evaluation" (1993) (interviews with 1220 beneficiaries from 122 blocks of 61 districts, drawn from 10 major states of the country, excluding those who had "Just Completed Training", about 48% of the trained beneficiaries were employed and 52% were unemployed; among the Employed, The Self-Employed And Employees Formed 28 And 20%, Respectively. Almost 92% Reported Acquisition Of Vocational/ Technical Knowledge; The Remainder Had Acquired Entrepreneurial Knowledge. Overall, Almost 42% Of The Trained Persons Reported Themselves To Be "Incapable" Of Taking Up Independent Activity As A Self-Employed Person. However, There Were Marked Interstate Differences In The percentage Of Trainees Reporting Incapability For Self-Employment; The percentage Was Much Higher (60 Or More). The Main Reported Reason For The Incapacity To Take Up Self-Employment Was "Lack Of Funds" (Reported By Two-Thirds), Whereas Only One-Fifth Reported "Inadequate Training" As The Reason. Of the total number of beneficiaries who got training under TRYSEM, roughly 47.19% were unemployed after training. According to the available data, 42% of the trained persons were women, and 39% were scheduled caste or tribe persons. About one-third of the beneficiaries were trained in " mechanical & electrical trades", another one- third in handicrafts, about 18% in hand-looms, 2% each in animal husbandry and food processing/ preservation, and 11% in other crafts or trades. Other studies of TRYSEM program in different district are reviewed in Sushma (2007) and show marked interstate differences in the employment effects of the program.

D – Evaluation design

E – Does the evaluation have a baseline survey?

E – Baseline survey sample size

F – As of today, does the evaluation have a follow-up survey?


G – Period between the end of the intervention AND the follow-up survey

H – Outcome indicators:

I – Results of the evaluation in terms of net impact

X Costs

A – Total and Unit costs

Unit cost: 1,535 hundreds (Cost per Beneficiary)
Currency: INR (In current prices)

B – General information on costs of the Intervention

Specific information on costs to society

Specific information on costs to government

The total cost of training was close to INR 1,535 per trained person (INR 1210 or almost 79% as recurring cost and the balance on the infrastructure for training).The Government covers the recurring costs towards the stipend paid to the trainees, the honoraria for the trainers, etc.; and also assists the training institutions to develop the requisite infrastructure in the form of building, equipment, and training aids. The trainees are supplied free tool-kits (costing up to INR 2000 since 1994-95, and up to INR 600 until March 31, 1994) during their training.

Specific information on costs to beneficiaries

B – General information on net benefit

Specific information on the cost-benefit to society

Specific information on the cost-benefit to government

Specific information on the cost-benefit to beneficiaries

D – Cost-benefit analysis, net result?

There is no analysis of cost-benefit

XI Quality of the Intervention

Intervention had zero impact in the labor market. (It includes statistically significant estimates of zero impact as well as all other non-statistically significant estimates)

XII Sources of Information

Pravin Visaria (1998): Unemployment Among Youth In India: Level, Nature And Policy Implications, Employment And Training Papers No. 36; ILO, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/documents/publication/wcms_120233.pdf

SUSHMA K. C. (2007): An analysis of entrepreneurship development in women through EDP trainings. Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (Agriculture), http://etd.uasd.edu/ft/th9445.pdf

Main findings of quick evaluation report of TRYSEM (June - August 1993)